Research Articles / Polls

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Vape pens produce Pavlovian-like cue among young adults who smoke

The University of Chicago recently released a study concluding that witnessing a vaporizer in use increases young adult’s urge to smoke. Similar to arguments laid out for smoking in public, cues lay heavily on this phenomena. For individuals that smoke, there was no significant difference between seeing someone use a combustible tobacco product or vaporizer when compared to desire to smoke. “The level and duration of desire to smoke among volunteers was the same whether they observed their “colleague” smoking a cigarette or using a vape pen. When the colleague drank bottled water, volunteers had no change in desire to smoke or vape.”

“We’ve made real progress on reducing smoking in our country,” King said. “We’ve done a good job banning indoor smoking. We rarely see two-pack-a-day smokers like we used to. Yet seeing people smoke in public remains common. Our study focused on a classical Pavlovian trigger, as seeing someone smoke is a known potent cue that can induce others to smoke. We did not expect that the vape pen would be as potent a cue as the regular cigarette, but it was as potent.”


The Tobacco 21 Movement and Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Use Among Youth

“Tobacco 21 laws that include ENDS should reduce initiation of these products among youth, similar to the suggested impact MLSA laws will have on initiation patterns for cigarettes.Reduced initiation of ENDS through MLSA laws may result in reduced initiation of cigarettes, and it may also result in delayed initiation of cigarette use, because the evidence for ENDS serving as a gateway to cigarette use is increasing. 4, 14 Regardless, it is plausible to predict that local, state, or federal MLSA laws would have a critical role in substantially reducing nicotine exposure among adolescents and young adults, particularly those aged 15 to 17 years.”


Hazardous chemicals discovered in flavored e-cigarette vapor



“One puff of any of the flavored e-liquids that we tested exposes the smoker to unacceptably dangerous levels of these aldehydes, most of which originates from thermal decomposition of the flavoring compounds,” said Khylstov. “These results demonstrate the need for further, thorough investigations of the effects of flavoring additives on the formation of aldehydes and other toxic compounds in e-cigarette vapors.”




Potential Consequences of E-Cigarette Use

A new analysis of survey data from nearly 130,000 middle‐school and high‐school students raises serious questions about the widespread belief that e‐cigarettes help reduce the number of teenagers who smoke tobacco.

When they processed the survey data for those 17‐year‐old girls who had vaped, however, a stunning 43 percent were tobacco smokers. “If e‐cigarettes are a substitute for smoking, we would expect the exact opposite,” says Ladner. “We would expect to see even more of the vapers not smoking.”


Widespread support for raising minimum age for buying tobacco, survey finds – Consumer Affairs

“Even in regions with historically strong ties to tobacco growing and manufacturing, a strong majority of the public, including smokers, is in favor of raising the minimum legal age of tobacco sales,” said Dr. Joseph G. L. Lee…


Minimum Ages of Legal Access for Tobacco in the United States From 1863 to 2015 – AJPH

The increasing evidence on tobacco addiction suggests that restoring MLAs to 21 years would reduce smoking initiation and prevalence, particularly among those younger than 18 years….

A woman smokes a cigarette in this illustration picture taken in Paris, October 8, 2014. France's health ministry unveiled tough measures geared at stamping out smoking among young people, with a planned rollout of brandless cigarette packets and curbs on advertising for electronic cigarettes. REUTERS/Christian Hartmann (FRANCE - Tags: POLITICS BUSINESS HEALTH)

Poll: Utahns Support Raising the Legal Age to Buy Tobacco –

Jones in his latest UtahPolicy survey finds that 74 percent of adults favor raising the legal smoking age to 21 years old, 23 percent opposed the move, and 3 percent didn’t know…


Most Kentuckians Support Raising Age To Buy Tobacco, Poll Says – NPR Kentucky

Raising the age limit to 21 also appears to be politically agreeable. The poll shows 60 percent of Republicans and Democrats support raising the age, followed by 55 percent of independents…

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Elway Poll: Two-thirds of Washingtonians support raising tobacco sale age to 21 – Washington Attorney General

This result shows clear public support for Washington State Attorney General Bob Ferguson’s proposal to raise the legal age to purchase tobacco and vapor products to 21…


POLL: Voters say raise age to 21 to buy tobacco – MBQF Consulting

Of the 584 respondents to a poll conducted Dec. 29 by MBQF Consulting and Marson Media, 72 percent said they support increasing the age to buy tobacco from 18 to 21…


California, Age 21 for Nicotine/Tobacco: A Near-Term Fiscal Analysis Based on the Projected Reductions in Low Birth Weight and Premature Births.

In the first five years of this policy, health care cost savings solely from preventing prematurity and low birth weight exceeds $102,000,000 of which $82,000,000 is Medi-Cal Savings, which easily surpasses the tobacco tax revenue loss of $74,000,000…


Attitudes Toward Raising the Minimum Age of Sale for Tobacco Among U.S. Adults – AJPM

Three quarters of adults favor raising the minimum tobacco age of sale to 21 years, including seven in ten smokers. Raising the minimum age of sale, along with proven tobacco control strategies, could prevent youth tobacco use…


Nicotine and the Developing Human

Because the brain does not reach full maturity until the 20s, restricting sales of electronic cigarettes and all tobacco products to individuals aged at least 21 years and older could provide positive health benefits…

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Public Health Implications of Raising the Minimum Age of Legal Access to Tobacco Products – Institute of Medicine

Given the status quo projections, this translates to approximately 249,000 fewer premature deaths, 45,000 fewer deaths from lung cancer, and 4.2 million fewer YLL…

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Statewide Survey Reveals Broad Support in Florida for New Rules to Reduce Youth Access to Tobacco Products – QuitDoc Research

Similarly, 69% of the respondents also favored changing the legal age for tobacco purchases to 21, with 54% strongly in favor of such an increase…


Public Support for Raising the Sales Age of Tobacco to 21 in the United States

Of these 3,245 adults, 70.5% supported the Tobacco 21 initiative. The majority of adults regardless of smoking status, geographic region, race, sex, education, and age – including adults under 21 – support raising the sales age to 21…


Another Poll Shows Big Majority In Favor Of Tobacco 21 – Seattle Pi

An “epidemic” in the use of nicotine vapor products prompted Gov. Jay Inslee and Attorney General Bob Ferguson on Thursday to call for a ban…



When presented with arguments on both side of the issue, voters remain solidly in support of the proposal to raise the legal age for the sale of cigarettes and other tobacco products to age 21…


Sources of tobacco for youths in communities with strong enforcement of youth access laws

Research has identified a variety of mechanisms by which youths obtain tobacco. Younger smokers tend to borrow cigarettes from their friends…


Retail impact of raising tobacco sales age to 21 years

The majority of tobacco use emerges in individuals before they reach 21 years of age, and many adult distributors of tobacco to youths are young adults aged between 18 and 20 years. Raising the tobacco sales minimum age to 21 years across the United States would decrease tobacco retailer and industry sales by approximately 2% but could contribute to a substantial reduction in the prevalence of youths’ tobacco use and dependency by limiting access…